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LINDNER CARBINES OF THE CIVIL WAR
Fig. 1. This Swiss made carbine resides in the Smithsonian’s American History Museum. It is 42 inches long overall and has a 23 inch barrel of .58 caliber. The trigger guard and butt plate are brass, while other mountings are iron. The breech tang is engraved “ED. LINDNER’S / PATENT / 1858” in three lines. The lock plate is marked “J. MEYER A. ZURICH.” (Courtesy Smithsonian Inst., catalog # 222389)
A dedicated inventor and persistent salesman, Edward Lindner designed breech loading firearms that saw use in the American Civil War, the Paraguayan War in South America and the Franco-Prussian War in Europe. Between 1855 and 1870 he patented a revolving rifle design, an automatic-opening chamber loader, a sealed breech chamber loader and several bolt action breech designs. The sealed breech chamber loader is the subject of our story here: it was used in the American and Paraguayan wars. The bolt action Lindner-Podewils musket saw use by Bavaria in the Franco-Prussian War.
First, who was Edward Lindner? By his own declaration he was born in 1819 in Lowenberg, in what was then the kingdom of Brandenburg-Prussia (in modern Germany). He immigrated to the U.S. in the mid 1850s. His correspondence, as well as city directories, show him residing at 25 Second Avenue, New York City: an 1857 city directory lists him as “inventor” while 1860 and 1862 directories list him as “engineer.” After his limited successes in obtaining arms contracts in the U.S. he visited Europe in 1859 and 1862, and ultimately returned there permanently in late 1863. His success in having his bolt action designs adopted there was greater than what he achieved with his chamber loader in the U.S. during our Civil War.
Lindner’s early design efforts, in 1856-57, focused on improvements to the Hall breech loader system which used a breech with pop-up chamber. Just as with the Hall, such a breech naturally leaked gas at the arms’ discharge. In 1858 he developed a means of overcoming the deficiency with a sealed breech design. He submitted an application for a U.S. patent on January 10, 1859 (see the patent drawing shown here). Not waiting for the issuance of the patent, that same
Fig. 2. Drawing from Lindner’s patent for a sealed breech firearm, dated March 29, 1859. (US Patent Office)
Fig. 3. Colonel Thornton F. Brodhead, 1st Michigan Cavalry, made the requisition for the first Lindner carbines. He was killed at the Battle of Second Bull Run (Second Manasses). (Library of Congress, LC-DIG-cwpb-04571)
a month later he presented to the Navy’s Bureau of Ordnance a sample musket based on this sealed breech design in an attempt to gain the Navy’s interest.
Commander J.A. Dahlgren tested this sample musket alteration at the Washington Navy Yard (the Navy’s experimental test station near Washington, DC). Cmdr. Dahlgren fired the musket a total of 140 times, achieving good results. He reported on January 13 that, “The piece worked well, and I think might be submitted to the tests of service.” However, there is no record that the Bureau pursued Cmdr. Dahlgren’s recommendation by obtaining any Lindner arms.
Lindner concurrently submitted a sample musket to the U. S. Army’s Ordnance Office. The Washington Arsenal was chosen for the tests, which were conducted on January 22 to 24, 1859 by an ordnance board consisting of Captains William Maynadier and T. T. S. Laidley. The report of the board states the results of the test as follows:
“The gun was fired forty times in five minutes, when it was so warm as to require cooling before proceeding. The whole number of cartridges, one hundred and thirteen, was fired, and the moveable parts of the gun seemed to work with as much ease at the close of the firing as at the beginning.”
The board’s assessment was,“In our opinion it does not possess either the simplicity or durability required for an arm for military purposes.”
This Army ordnance board had identified what would remain the critical deficiencies of Lindner’s design: the breech joint was prone to leakage after prolonged use and the arm lacked durability. This test’s result, however, did not dissuade Lindner from continued attempts to gain the acceptance of his design. He somehow gained the attention of the Secretary of War, who directed the Army Adjutant General to convene a board of Army officers--rather than Ordnance Department experts--to test Lindner’s design. The Army’s test board convened on March 15, 1859 at Fort Columbus, N.Y. The report of the board describes the two arms as the same type design that was tested by the Ordnance Department two months prior:
“These arms are breech-loading. The head of the receiver enters the barrel, and thus prevents the escape of gas. This principle is not new, but Mr. Lindner’s application of it may be. The bore of the barrel is reamed out at its breech sufficiently deep to admit the chamfered head of the receiver, which is made to assemble into the barrel by means of a cylindrical collar nut.”
The board had 50 shots fired from each arm on the first day, and then another 50 shots on March 21 without cleaning either gun. In each instance the firing was rapid and the barrels heated up until too hot to touch. As the breech mechanism heated, the collar became hard to turn--though not so hard as to stop the firing. After the second firing of the sample rifle musket for rapidity, it was then fired from a rest 40 times for accuracy at 400 yards with only three direct hits. The next day each arm was fired another 75 shots from a rest, at targets 200, 300 and 400 yards distant. The results were not impressive.
The Army board’s final report was not favorable to Lindner’s design:
“The trials with this arm demonstrate that its best feature is the method used of uniting the receiver with the barrel; this is effected so as to prevent the escape of the gasses at that point. . . (however) the Board cannot approve of this arm as now presented.”
Thus, this second trial of 1859 resulted in no more success than the first, though Lindner’s design seems to have achieved a gas seal at the breech. No report has been located of any further Army or Navy tests of Lindner’s “collar nut” or rotating sleeve breechloader. Lindner traveled to England in January of 1859 to submit his design to the British Small Arms Committee, where he had no better results.
In spite of these failures Lindner had pursued a U. S. patent on this latest breechloader innovation. The patent, number 23,378, was issued on March 29, 1859. For our story here the most important feature to receive patent protection is the following claim:
"The method herein described for opening or closing the breach, and forming a tight joint at the junction of the barrel with the breech, by the employment of a screw ferrule or sleeve fitting an outer screw-thread on the barrel. . . for drawing the same backward and forward in the direction of the barrel to or from the rear end thereof upon said screw-thread sleeve. . . ”
Lindner envisioned his design primarily as a method of converting muzzle loaders into breechloaders. Lindner’s patent application describes the breech as “. . . made of the rear portion of the barrel of an ordinary musket to be converted into a breech-loading musket. . . ,” from which description we can foretell his method of converting arms. This idea would see fulfillment after the opening shots of the American Civil War with the alteration of 303 Model 1841 rifles, familiar to collectors today as the “Lindner Mississippi rifle.” The design represented by this patent would also form the basis for the three subsequent carbine orders that Lindner would receive during the Civil War.
“AUSTRIAN” CONVERSION CARBINES
The first carbines which Lindner delivered during the Civil War are converted Austrian muzzleloading arms. The records concerning the “Austrian carbines” converted to his breechloading system are somewhat fragmentary, but there is sufficient information available to piece together the overall story. The name “Austrian
Fig. 4. The Lindner carbine converted from a Model 1842 Jaegerstutzen rifle is 37-3/4 inches long. The blued .60 caliber barrel is 19-3/8 inches long with shallow seven groove rifling. The furniture is brass. The original sliding wooden patch box has been filled in (as on all observed samples). On this example a silver plaque reads: “PRESENTED BY/RUTH ROLAND/ HOLLYWOOD/1930” (Roland was a famous silent movie star). (Author’s collection and photograph)
Fig. 5 The long saddle bar is unique to the Model 1842 Jaeger Stutzen carbine. (Author’s collection and photograph)
Fig. 6. The chamber piece is the cut off rear part of the barrel. The original Model 1842 rear sight is retained. (Author’s collection and photograph)
conversion carbine” is used here because the original arms were the Austrian issue Model 1842 Jaegerstutzen Rifle and the Model 1854 Extra Corps Rifle.
Lindner’s correspondence shows that, believing that his 1859 design had great promise, he established a European shop in Hamburg to convert available arms to his system. He obtained 2,000 Model 1842 Jaeger Stutzen rifles and about 1,000 Model 1854 Extra Corp rifles. The Model 1842s were percussion tube lock rifles which the Piedmontese had captured in their 1859 war with Austria. The Piedmontese had them converted to use a percussion cap. The source of the Model 1854 rifles is unknown.
Existing examples of both types of Lindner converted carbine are pictured here. It is important to note that the chamber lengths of the two types differ significantly, indicating that they were probably made at different times or in two separate production runs. Further, since some Model 1854 arms have been found with “1861” dated lockplates, it is assumed that this type was converted later (i.e. late 1861 or 1862) than the Model 1842 rifles that were turned into “carbine” conversions. Importantly, these carbines were fabricated on speculation of their sale: there was no government contract yet in place for their purchase. Also, since all of the examined carbines are not only marked in English but also have a style of patent marking that is strictly American, it is assumed that the carbines were made expressly for sale in the U.S. during the Civil War.
After the first lot of conversions was partially completed in Europe, in mid 1861 they were shipped to the U.S. and to the Amoskeag Mfg. Co. in Manchester, Vermont, where Lindner had them “altered and finished.” He was at that factory in August, 1861. What was included in having the arms “altered and finished” in the U.S. is nowhere described. The Amoskeag Mfg. Co. began work on the arms in September. An entry in a company ledger is titled “Alteration of 400 Rifles by Lindner,” but later correspondence shows that these were actually carbines (or perhaps rifles that were being shortened to carbine length). Work on the carbines ended in November, and the company’s cost is recorded as $1871.47. Thus, whatever the work that was done on the carbines cost $4.68 each--a not inconsiderable sum in those days. The cost indicates that either the work done on each carbine was extensive or that the company important to note that the chamber lengths of the two types differ significantly, indicating that they were probably made at different times or in two separate production runs. Further, since some Model 1854 arms have been found with “1861” dated lockplates, it is assumed that this type was converted later (i.e. late 1861 or 1862) than the Model 1842 rifles that were turned into “carbine” conversions. Importantly, these carbines were fabricated on speculation of their sale: there was no government contract yet in place for their purchase. Also, since all of the examined carbines are not only marked in English but also have a style of patent marking that is strictly American, it Fig. 4. The Lindner carbine converted from a Model 1842 Jaegerstutzen rifle is 37-3/4 inches long. The blued .60 caliber barrel is 19-3/8 inches long with shallow seven groove rifling. The furniture is brass. The original sliding wooden patch box has been filled in (as on all observed samples). On this example a silver plaque reads: “PRESENTED BY/RUTH ROLAND/ HOLLYWOOD/1930” (Roland was a famous silent movie star). (Author’s collection and photograph) is assumed that the carbines were made expressly for sale in the U.S. during the Civil War. completed in Europe, in mid 1861 they were shipped to the U.S. and to the Amoskeag Mfg. Co. in Manchester, Vermont, where Lindner had them “altered and finished.” He was at that factory in August, 1861. What was included in having the arms “altered and finished” in the U.S. style of patent marking that is strictly American, is Fig. 5 The long saddle bar is unique to the Model 1842 Jaegerstutzen carbine. (Author’s collection and photograph) is nowhere described. The Amoskeag Mfg. Co. began work on the arms in September. An entry in a company ledger is titled “Alteration of 400 Rifles by Lindner,” but later correspondence shows that these were actually carbines (or perhaps rifles that were being shortened to carbine length). Work on the carbines ended in November, and the company’s cost is recorded as $1871.47. Thus, whatever the work that was done on the carbines cost $4.68 each--a not inconsiderable sum in those days. The cost indicates that either the work done on each carbine was extensive or that the company bought or made special tooling for fabricating these and, potentially, future guns.
While Lindner was having the carbines worked on, others were at work trying to sell them. Charles A. Luce, manager of Amoskeag’s fire engine department, in concert with one Louis Stern of New york City, obtained the services of Samuel B. Smith to sell the arms in Washington, DC. Smith was also involved in selling Austrian rifled muskets to the Ordnance Department under his own name, while also providing French rifles on another contract. Thus, Smith was well acquainted with the arms market in 1861. It was Smith who on November 1 offered the new commander of the 1st Michigan Cavalry, Colonel Thornton F. Brodhead, Lindner carbines for his regiment. Col. Brodhead is known to have been in Washington at that time. Col. Brodhead apparently made a direct request to the Secretary of War for the purchase of the carbines: later testimony before a Congressional commission records that the purchase “was based, apparently, on an order from the War Department, probably verbal, as no record of it is to be found in the books of the (Ordnance) office.”
The order given to Smith by the Ordnance Office, dated November 6, 1861 states:
“The Secretary of War has approved your proposal to furnish, for Colonel Brodhead’s regiment, four hundred breech-loading carbines, Lindner’s patent, and 40,000 cartridges for the same, provided that they are delivered within eight days; the carbines at a price not exceeding twenty five dollars each, and the cartridges at twenty dollars per thousand.”
Smith delivered nine carbines the next day and the remaining 391 carbines on November 27. The Ordnance Office obviously ignored the slightly late delivery because it needed the carbines. (For some reason the Ordnance Office ignored receipt of the first nine carbines in subsequent reports, leading to today’s books citing only the delivery of 391 carbines.) Because this was an open-market purchase of arms, there was no inspection of them.
The sole type of Lindner carbine then available was the 400 “Austrian conversion carbines” going through the machine shop at the Amoskeag Mfg. Co. (As we shall see, those wholly American made carbines which are today called the “Lindner First Type” by collectors were not completed until late 1862.)
Although all 400 carbines were delivered in 1861, not
Fig. 7. Opening the chamber for loading requires only that the collar be rotated a half turn; a spring underneath then forces the chamber up. In closing, the chamber piece is forced down and then as the collar is rotated clockwise the chamber is forced forward into the barrel to form a gas seal. (Author’s collection and photograph)
all of them were issued to the 1st Michigan Cavalry. Due to the scarcity of carbines for the growing number of cavalry regiments, the Army’s Chief of Cavalry had determined a policy wherein the “volunteer cavalry. . . have been armed with pistols and sabers and ten carbines to each company.” How many Lindner carbines went to the 1st Michigan--or to any other regiment--has not been determined. However, a December, 1862 inventory of arms at the Washington Arsenal shows that 100 Lindner carbines remained unissued.
The carbines issued to the 1st Michigan Cavalry may have seen service at the Second Battle of Bull Run, August 28-30, 1862 (where Col. Brodhead suffered a mortal wound). By December, 1862 the regiment had been rearmed with 385 Sharps carbines and these Lindner carbines disappeared from the record.
Lindner carbines disappear from the record. The 400 carbines mentioned above are not the only Lindner “Austrian conversion carbines” that came to the U.S. Smith remained active in trying to sell more Lindner carbines, writing to the Chief of Ordnance on April 30, 1862:
“I propose to furnish to the Government Sixteen Hundred breechloading Carbines 'Linders Patent’ as per sample now in your possession. I also propose to furnish to the Government Seven Hundred and fifty other Carbines also “’Lindners Patent’ differing from the first mentioned lot as I will personally explain to you. I shall probably have on hand within a few days some Three Hundred more of the same. . .”
This letter is important because it documents the
Fig. 8. The Lindner carbine converted from a Model 1854 Extra Corp Rifle is 37-3/4 inches long. The blued .58 caliber barrel is 19-3/4 inches long with four groove rifling. The furniture is iron except for the brass nose cap and tang plate. (Author’s collection and photograph)
existence of the two different types of Lindner carbine in early 1862. Because the wholly American made Lindner carbines hadn’t yet been fabricated, these can only be “Austrian conversion carbines.”
Smith was not the only person marketing Lindner carbines. Stern also offered the Ordnance Office 2,600 Lindner's carbines at $25 each in a letter dated May, 1862. In a January 23, 1864 report, Brig. Gen. George Ramsay (the new Chief of Ordnance) says regarding Stern’s offer:
“The arms (were) to be made in part in Hamburg, Germany and finished in the United States. . . The Arms were not such as would suit our troops, being of too large a caliber and the offer was declined. He made several persistent efforts to dispose of those arms both in person and through agents, offering them as low as $18, but the government refused to purchase them at any price.”
In further corroboration of the number of carbines being offered and their origin is the following letter from Lindner to the Ordnance Office, written October 31, 1862:
“Among the various offers of guns, made lately, to the Ordnance Department, I am astonished to hear of several parties, each offering 2,500 Lindner’s carbines, at different prices.
“In order to place the whole matter frankly before you, and prevent all possible misunderstanding, I beg leave to state:
“1. That a number of 2,500 carbines, on my system made in Europe, are here, which I have, in part, altered and finished at the Amoskeag Manufacturing Co. at Manchester, N.H.
“2. I do not own any number of these guns and consequently have nothing at all to do with the sale of them.”
Thus, from the above letters it is clear that in early 1862 a total of 2,500 carbines were available, according to Lindner (or 2,650 per Smith), beyond the 400 delivered in 1861. The carbines were “. . . made in part at Hamburg, Germany and finished in the United States.” Two different types are available according to Smith: 1,600 of one and perhaps 1,050 of a second. Of the first type, the Ordnance Office already had a sample, likely representing the type delivered in 1861--the Model 1842 type. From this information we can better understand what transpired in 1862.
Smith implies that he owned the carbines but Gen. Ramsay’s report says Stern was the importer. A letter copied next shows that Daniel Cofer was also involved. Lindner did not own the carbines but he was involved in altering and finishing a part of them at the Amoskeag Mfg. Co. That company’s records show a new account opened for Lindner on June 2, 1862 titled “Repairing xxxx carbines, Lindner.” The number originally recorded to be repaired was “2,500,” but this was lined through and the number “1,000” entered. The recorded costs are almost all for labor rather than material, although the record mentions “forging 1,000 rings @ 4 cts.” Also, three deliveries from the company are mentioned: one of “25 cases” (i.e. 500 carbines) in June, one of 100 carbines recorded on August 27 and another for an unrecorded number shipped in September. Fourth, the total cost of the work in the machine shop ledger was $1253.64, or $1.25 per carbine.
How do these facts fit with other documentation? No further documentation concerning the 500 carbines repaired and shipped from Amoskeag in June has been found. A letter dated July 30 from Cofer to Amoskeag concerning the two later deliveries explains what was happening with the carbines:
“On the 18th/19th ultimo I sent to your company twenty cases of carbines ‘Lindners’ Patent’ to be overhauled by that gentleman and put in thorough order, for which I was to pay at the rate of one dollar and a half pr. gun.
“Five cases only equal to 100 carbines have been returned to me - truly a great disappointment in view of both the magnitude of your renowned establishment & of the probability for a sale which now seem(s) to offer. . .
“By Kensley’s Express - in order to expedite the
Fig. 9. The converted Model 1854 carbine retains the original rear sight but has a rather crudely made short staple and sling ring added. (Author’s collection and photograph)
matter, I have sent today to yr Company 5 cases = 100 guns to be fitted up as before mentioned. Have the goodness - dear Sir - to direct that not again an unnecessarily unaccountable delay intervenes. The moment I receive a lot - which I herewith authorize you to send me “pr Express” I shall send you a like quantity which I cannot otherwise do, as by a special favor of our Customs House authorities I am granted permission to replace those altered or finished guns in Bond and withdraw a like quantity out of Bond without payment of duty. In this way I am to be enabled to offer and will sell to the Govt. a serviceable gun.”
In summary, from these letters and from the ledgers of the Amoskeag Mfg. Co. it appears that several parties had invested in the guns which Lindner had obtained and had converted in Hamburg, and then had shipped to the U.S. The guns were held in bonded storage by U.S. Customs until they were permitted entry only after importation taxes were paid. Once in the U.S., Lindner had them “repaired” (Cofer says “put in thorough order”). Cofer owned at least 500 of the carbines, 400 of which he had delivered to the Amoskeag Mfg. Co. on July 18 and 19. On July 30 he sent another 100 carbines to the company, and suggested that more would come. As of July 30 he had received 100 back (perhaps matching the ledger entry of August 27 for the shipping cost for 100 carbines). However, there is no indication in the company’s ledgers that Cofer delivered any more beyond the 500 carbines documented in his letter. Cofer says he was fulfilling some “government” order; no record of such a U.S. federal or state government purchase has been found so he may have been referring to a foreign government.
While the records and correspondence do not describe the work that the Amoskeag Mfg. Co. did in 1862 on the 1,000 carbines, at a price of only $1.20 per carbine the work was not extensive. The arms may already have been altered to carbine length in Hamburg. The work likely included the addition of a saddle bar and a ring, due to the reference to “forging 1000 rings.” Note that these carbines made from the Model 1854 Extra Corp rifles have a different saddle bar and ring configuration than that on the Model 1842.
While some of these Lindner carbines could have been sold into the U.S., Gen. Ramsay’s 1864 report concerning Lindner carbines says, “. . . it is known at this office that a large quantity of inferior arms which were stored at New York (by Mr. Stern) were re-exported as soon as the President gave authority to that effect during the past Summer” (1863). (Early in the war the President had banned the export of arms.) One hint at a possible purchaser comes from a letter to Luce at Amoskeag dated August 29, 1863 from C. & G. Woodman, New York City bankers. In it they state, “We desire to obtain two of the Lindner carbines. . . We want carefully selected samples & with the appendages complete, as they are ordered for the inspection of the Government of Paraguay.” At that date Amoskeag had no new made Lindner carbines to offer, so perhaps those converted Austrian carbines in storage--which were by this date permitted to be exported--were acceptable. However, no record has been found of their actual sale to Paraguay. We do have records which show that hundreds of Lindner carbines were shipped to Brazil in late 1865. Today, both types of Lindner “Austrian conversion carbine” can be found in the Museo Historico Nacional in Rio de Janeiro. Both types are also on display in the Circulo Militar museum in Buenos Aires.
The observed “Austrian conversion carbines” are serial numbered. Each carbine has a marking “L&Z ###” on the right side of the chamber in front of the percussion bolster, with “#” being up to a four digit number. This number is matched by assembly numbers on all major parts of the Model 1854 type. However, on the Model 1842 the serial number is not stamped on other parts, but rather a different matching assembly number is present . A survey of verified serial numbers shows the Model 1842 extending from 41 to 1384 (total of ten samples) and the Model 1854 from 47 to 486 (seven samples). Model 1842 carbines with locks dated “1847” and “1849” are observed, while two Model 1854 carbines were observed with “1861” dated locks. Because both types are identically marked with “L&Z ###” it is safe to assume that this mark was stamped at the time of
Fig. 10. The differences in sights and saddle bar between the Model 1842 (bottom) and Model 1854 (top) type carbines are highlighted here. The rotating collars are of similar length (though that of the M1854 is typically 1/8 inch shorter). The chamber piece of the Model 1854 type is 3/8 to 1/2 inch shorter than the Model 1842 type (for no known reason). The chamber piece on each is stamped in three lines, “EDWARD LINDNER’S/PATENT/MARCH 29.1859.” (Author’s collection and photograph)
their conversion to the Lindner system. Since the serial numbers of the two types overlap but the Model 1854 was made later, it is likely that the Model 1854 type had its own number range. Though the observed serial numbers represent a limited sample size, they suggest that the Model 1842 type was made in larger numbers.
It appears that the 400 Lindner carbines purchased by the Ordnance Office in November of 1861 were the Model 1842 type. Because they were a purchase on the open market, rather than on contract, they were not inspected and thus, there are no unique markings with which to distinguish them. However, the only three known Lindner “Austrian conversion carbines” in U.S. Army collections--as representative of the Civil War arms--are Model 1842 types: two at the Springfield Armory museum (one of which can be documented to have been in Ordnance Department possession before 1893) and one at the West Point Museum. The correspondence shows the Model 1854 type was made in 1862, after the delivery of the first 400.
Who converted the rifles to carbine size and the Lindner system in Hamburg remains a mystery. The meaning of the mark of “L&Z ###” on each carbine is not known, although it can be speculated that it means “Lindner & Z---.”
In conclusion, while there yet remains much to be discovered about the history of the “Austrian conversion carbines” we can at least see the outline of the story:
at least 2,900 (or perhaps 3,050) of two types were converted in Hamburg, in what is now Germany,
they were shipped to the U.S. for sale,
the Amoskeag Mfg. Co. did alteration work on 1,400 of them,
some were used in the Civil War, and,
The remainder were sold to places such as South America.
With today’s scarcity of examples it would appear that even those that were used here in the Civil War were subsequently sold out of the country. By comparison, while the author has located only 18 “Austrian conversion carbines” remaining in the U.S., the American made (First type) carbines--of which 501 were manufactured--are found in much larger numbers. Thus, the “Austrian conversion carbine” is today among the most rare of Civil War issue carbines.
FIRST TYPE AMERICAN CARBINE
With the sale of 400 Austrian conversion carbines to the Federal government in 1861, Lindner (along with the Amoskeag Mfg. Co.) was emboldened to pursue added carbine sales. In addition to Lindner, factory manager Ezekiel A. Straw became an advocate of the carbine and petitioned the Ordnance Department for contracts.
Lindner and Straw began preparations for the manufacture of new-made carbines in anticipation of additional Ordnance Department orders. On October 26, 1861 the company’s account books for the machine shop show an entry opened for “500 carbines.” This account, for labor, parts, etc., remained open until March 28, 1863, when the account was finally settled. Other machine shop accounts for “500 carbines” were opened in 1862: on March 14 for the Stock Book and on March 21 for the machinery account. Thus, the work on assembling 500 carbines was being done in the company’s extensive machine shop, which had been established to build and maintain the company’s textile making machinery.
Amoskeag did not yet have complete facilities for gun making so outside sources were selected for critical parts. The barrels for the